Technological Impact: On RBI Policies

The Reserve Bank of India or RBI has started depending hugely on technology nowadays. Let us see how these technological tools are influencing the lives of common men.

THE UNIQUE IDENTIFICATION AUTHORITY OF INDIA and cards issued by them: Issuance of these cards are done by capturing the biometric details of every citizen of the country. These details are now made mandatory for any financial transaction.

What is a card issued by UIDAI? One such card is a card holding a number assigned to every citizen of India by the UIDAI or THE UNIQUE IDENTIFICATION AUTHORITY OF INDIA and the card commonly named as the AADHAR CARD.

Technology behind it: The technology is foolproof. The Iris and Fingerprints of a person are captured, scanned and held into a card. The entire process is done by very sophisticated devices and elite technology was used. This process is called the process of capturing the Biometric Identity of an individual. The Iris and the fingerprint of one individual will never match with the details of another individual in this world. That is why such a system was used. This card is commonly named as the AADHAR CARD..

How secure is it? According to experts the UIDAI details are kept in a highly secured server and it cannot be leaked. But it is only a matter of time to get its efficacy tested.

Demonetization: This is the art of moving currency away from the system and to provide detectable electronic modes of financial transaction. This also involves making the currency notes in circulation as invalid and issuance of new currency notes.

Technology behind demonetization: The technology lies in the art of printing notes. The mint stops printing the notes of old format and the government declares them ineffective. The mint then releases notes of new format.

Reason: The people keeping unaccounted wealth suddenly found the currencies kept in the secrecy of their homes invalid. Hence they are deprived of their unaccounted wealth. Another reason is to make electronic modes of financial transactions almost compulsory.

Backlogs: Very few people keep their wealth in form of notes as it is hard to hide. People who kept it in the form of Gold or other precious things or precious objects those are easy to hide escaped the process. A large part of population cannot even sign their names. How they will conduct electronic modes of transaction?

Reason: The reason behind it is to prevent the increase of black money in the system.

Effectiveness: The literacy rate of India is low. Hence any person having a card can avail any financial facility provided he declares his income properly.

Backlogs: The backlogs of this system are also there. They are:

Misuse: Any wealthy person can put undisclosed wealth into the accounts of one UIDAI number seeded account of another person for a price in order to make their wealth clean.

Even after making this system mandatory a person can disclose his wealth in a partial manner and keep the rest by converting it into other forms like gold.

Tax heavens: Tax heavens like Switzerland, Dubai, Mauritius etc still exist and wealth can be channelized there unless the Indian Government sign a treaty with those countries and synchronise their technical system with the details of non-resident Indians.

Emotional aspect: Instead of fully depending on this system the Government can tell the citizens to declare unaccounted wealth with a penalty so that no lives are lost due to the fear of demonetization.

Thus technology helps and it has helped the government and RBI to recover thousands of crores of unaccounted wealth. But this is just the beginning. We are yet to see the loopholes. Let us see what the tie up of technology and RBI holds for us. This only time can tell.



Source by Suddhadeb Chakraborti

India – A Future Warehouse of the World

Abstract

India has the world’s second largest population and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. India has a promising future, given the unprecedented growth in economy and its clout in the global issues. India is now riding on the wave of a gigantic boom in computer driven new economy. Many developed countries of the world are seeking the huge pool of English speaking talented software professionals in India. As the world is transforming towards knowledge society, India too is moving proportionately competing with the world. With the increase of Internet users and the advancement of information and communication technology in India had boasted the development towards e-commerce in global economic society. In IT sector India is booming as a super power. In the last few years India has made rapid strides in the IT sector especially in the software services and IT enabled services. In this paper we analyses the picture of IT industry in a very near future in India & contribution of India in world’s Information Technology Sector.

Introduction

From the 1950s, IBM had a virtual monopoly of computers in India. The 360 series release in 1960s was the major workhouse of the large organizations. They even maintained a chain of programmers who could write down software’s for their machines. However in 1978, when George Fernandes, ministry of industries at that time, commanded IBM to take local shareholders into its subsidiary, the company refused strictly and went back after winding up its all operations in India. Its ex-employees then set up Computer Maintenance Corporation, with the primary object of maintaining IBM computers.

During the period of 1995-2000, the Indian IT Industry has recorded a C.A.G.R. (Compounded Annual Growth Rate) of more than 42.4 percent, which is almost double the growth rate of IT industries in many of the developed countries. For Details contact AMCHAM National Secretariat, New Delhi Foreign companies particularly American companies have played a vital role in making India an emerging IT super power in the world. These MNCs account for nearly 22 per cent of Indian software exports. According to the latest NASSCOM estimates, in 2001-02, multinational infotech companies exported software worth Rs. 6500 crore from India. Country’s total software export was pegged at Rs. 29400 crore. In terms of investment and growth, U.S. companies like Cognizant Technologies (largest export revenue earning MNC) IBM, Oracle, GE, Cisco, Compaq, Intel amongst others lead the MNCs in the Information Technology sector. Nine out of top 20 Indian IT firms are from United States. These account for over 37% of the turnover of the top 20 firms operating in India. Despite their significant contribution to the IT sector, these companies have to face a number of procedural and operational problems in India.

However, the volume of e-commerce, in India, is far below the levels achieved in USA, which was about 1 percent of the total GDP in 1999. Further, the expected volume of e-commerce in India in 2001 (US$ 255.3 million) is also below the levels expected to be achieved, which in comparison to Australia (US$ 3 billion), China (US$ 586 million), South Korea (US$ 876 million) and Hong Kong (US$685 million) is quite less.

Time has changed the way businesses are carried out. What was supposed to be known to few and limited to the home towns, appears to be an ancient methodology of carrying out the work. The present day brands work on world wide scale, that is they are successful in not just one particular region but have deepened their roots to all the corners in the globe that you can think of.

Information Technology is what constitutes the most important sector in the present day trend of carrying out business. It is because you can not be present everywhere to monitor the work, but with networking and communications, you can always stay in contact with the other business sites of yours.

ICT Approaches of India

A spate of reforms-post-1991 economic crisis-have given impetus to the Indian economy, particularly to the ICT sector. As part of the reform agenda, the Indian Government has taken major steps to promote ICT including the creation in 1988 of a World Market Policy, with a focus on software development for export; telecommunications policy reform; privatization of the national long-distance and mobile phone markets; and development of a more comprehensive approach to ICT. Although India’s success is commanding increasing attention and investment, it has yet to result in the distribution of social and economic benefits across a broader base of the population. Challenges-including the perception of an unfavorable regulatory climate, an overloaded judicial system, poor infrastructure and costly access, and limited use of ICT-remain. The emerging shift in government strategy, toward knowledge-intensive services, has created a climate more conducive to addressing enterprise, domestic infrastructure, education and the use of ICT to meet development needs.

Policy: India’s focus on self-reliant industrialization in the 1970s and 1980s has been replaced with reforms aimed at positioning India in the world economy: the foreign direct investment process has been streamlined, new sectors have been opened up to foreign direct investment and ownership, and the government has exempted the ICT industry from corporate income tax for five years. These reforms have helped India to become increasingly integrated into the global economy through growth in the export of software and skill-intensive software services, such as call-centers.

In 1986, the Indian government announced a new software policy designed to serve as a catalyst for the software industry. This was followed in 1988 with the World Market Policy and the establishment of the Software Technology Parks of India (STP) scheme. As a result, the Indian software industry grew from a mere US$150 million in 1991-1992 to a staggering US$5.7 billion (including over US$4 billion worth of software exports) in 1999-2000-representing an annual growth rate of over 50 percent.

The establishment of the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was a key step towards effective implementation of telecommunications reforms. In 1992, the mobile phone market was opened up to private operators, in 1994 the fixed services market followed, and finally in 1999, national long distance operations were opened to private competition. Prior to these reforms, the Department of Telecommunications had been the sole provider of telecommunications services.

In addition, to attract foreign direct investment, the government permitted foreign equity of up to 100 percent and duty free import on all inputs. Government-created technology parks also offered professional labor services to clients, a cost-effective program for India since ICT labour is so inexpensive by global standards.

Infrastructure: Teledensity in India has reached 3.5 percent of the population. Approximately 1 percent of households have fixed line connections, compared to 10 percent in China. The mobile sector has approximately 3 million users, growing at 100 percent per annum, and is expected to outstrip the fixed line market in the near future. The number of Internet accounts is around 1.5 million, growing at 50 percent per annum. India also has very high penetration rates of terrestrial TV, cable and radio. Voice and data wireless solutions, for both domestic and export markets, are increasingly produced and used locally.

Access to telephones in Indian villages has improved in the last five to six years through the introduction of the Public Call Office (PCO) run by local shopkeepers. More than 60 percent of the villages in India have at least one phone. This also includes over 800,000 Village Public Telephones (VPTs). Worldtel is undertaking a pilot in four states to secure financing to upgrade the Village Public Telephones so they will soon be Internet-accessible.

In some urban locations, India’s Software Technology Parks (STPs) provide infrastructure, buildings, electricity, telecommunications facilities and high-speed satellite links to facilitate export processing of software.

India also has a number of progressive computerized networks in place, including a stock exchange, the Indian Railways Passenger Reservation System, and the National Informatics Centre Network (NICNET), which connects government agencies at the central, state and district levels.

Enterprise: India’s well-established framework for protecting intellectual property rights has been an important inducement to business investment: well-known international trademarks have been protected by Indian laws, even when they were not registered in India. In 1999, major legislation was passed to protect intellectual property rights in harmony with international practices and in compliance with India’s obligations under TRIPS.

Much of the initial domestic demand stimulus for ICT and ICT services industries in India has come from government: 28 percent of total IT spending to date can be attributed to government and public sector expenditure. Major areas of government expenditure include: financial services, taxation, customs, telecommunications, education, defense and public infrastructure. As a result of the growth in ICT use in India, the ICT industry itself has also increased its domestic economic activity, for example, a number of ICT companies have developed accounting and word processing packages in Indian languages. The potential impact of this growth on the domestic economy is much broader than developing software for export only.

Human Capacity: In spite of relatively low literacy rates among the general population, India has several key advantages in human capital: a large English-speaking population and world-class education, research and management institutions-a direct result of investment in self-reliance in science and technology. In addition to establishing Indian Institutes of Technology in various cities around India to create a large pool of technical skills, the government has a computer policy to encourage R&D in personal computers. The IT training sector continues to grow at a rapid rate: total training revenues in 1998 were estimated at US$225 million, 30 percent up on the previous year. However, one of the biggest challenges to the Indian software industry remains the difficulty in attracting and retaining talented professionals.

Content and Applications: India has a large population with great linguistic diversity. Creating and maintaining locally relevant content for a country with 418 languages is a challenge. Nevertheless, local language content is slowly making ICT more relevant and accessible to a broader cross-section of the population. For example, India’s Center for Development of Advanced Computing has recently launched a scheme called iLEAP-ISP to create a free multilingual word processor to be made available to all Internet subscribers. On other fronts, some states such as Tamil Nadu have launched their own initiatives to support the standardization of local language software through interface programs that can be adapted to word processors, dictionaries, and commercial keyboards for use in schools, colleges, government offices and homes.

An emphasis has also been placed on the development of relevant e-government applications in India. Some states such as Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh have started to introduce applications which allow citizens to have faster and more transparent access to government services-for example, the provision of information on laws and regulations, and the procuring of licenses and official documents online.

Strategic Compact: Public-private partnerships, catalyzed by the IT Ministry, have played a key role in India’s ICT-related development. One of the positive results of this effort has been the IT Act of 2000, which was based on the recommendation of the National IT Task Force, and aims to set the overall strategy for the IT sector. In addition, the government and the private sector are starting to come together to foster ICT development. For example, a joint effort by the Computer Science Automation Department at the Indian Institute of Science and a Bangalore-based private company have developed Simputer-a cheap micro-computer that enables illiterate users to browse the Internet.

India’s development and contribution in world’s information technology sector is of highest reputation. Cities like Bangalore have become the favorite(most preferred) destinations of all the big banners like HSBC, Dell, Microsoft, GE, Hewlett Packard, and several Indian multi national firms like Infosys Technologies, Wipro, and Microland who have set up their offices in the city. It is because the city offers good infrastructure, with large floor space and great telecom facilities. This can be judged on the basis of the high growth statistics of India and the changing outlook of the companies towards India .

It is because of this growth many popular brands that have not yet build up there rigid offices in the country are making it fast to have a destination in India too. For example, Sun Microsystems, a global IT major, announced in Bangalore to double the present workforce of the company’s Sun India Engineering Center (IEC) from the present 1000 to 2000 in the next two years time. IEC, which is the largest R&D center for Sun outside the US , would also focus on developing products in India to suit the needs of the Indian market, which would be benchmarked globally.

This speedy growth of IT Sector is undoubtedly due to the efforts of Indian government and the other developments that took in the other parts of the globe.

The country has seen an era when after the IBM shutted its shop in India in 1950, the mainframes that were imported into the country were all from Russia . Western computer could not be imported because of an American embargo on export of high-technology equipment to India , which was considered an ally of the Soviet Union .

Slowly, with the time the country could develop its first powerful parallel computer in 1991 known as CDAC, by connecting together a string of less powerful computers.

With time and the continuous growth across the world, the country continued struggling and came up as the world leader in Information Technology Sector.

The industry has grown up to US $ 5.7 billion (including over $4 billion worth of software exports) in 1999-2000, with the annual growth rate not sliding below 50 percent since 1991.

It exports software and services to nearly 95 countries around the world. The share of North America ( U.S. & Canada ) in India ‘s software exports is about 61 per cent.

The Indian labor is not only cheap but is technically skilled too to the world class level. It is due to the Indian Education System that includes in its course curriculum the practical knowledge of the latest technology that is developed in world along with the fluency in English Language that imparts compatibility in an Indian technician to communicate and work through out the world.

Further the geographical location of India serves it the advantage of being exactly halfway round the world from the US west coast, which is another reason why India is preferred destination of many big brands.

Also, The presence of a large number of Indians, especially engineers, in the US gave India an easy entry into the US software market.

What adds more to the dominance of India in Information Technology Sector is the government policies like the enactment of cyber laws to protect and safeguard the interest of software companies in India .

Setting up of the Software Technology Parks of India (STPI), by the Ministry of Information Technology, Government of India and the International Technology Park in a joint project by the State Government, the TATA Group and the Singapore Consortium to promote and facilitate the software exports is another major step towards the growth of Indian Information Technology Sector.

Similarly an industrial park, known as Electronic City , was set up in 1991 takes more than a hundred electronic industries including Motorola, Infosys, Siemens, ITI, and Wipro, in an area of around 330 acres.

The Export Promotion Industrial Park , built near International Technology Park , gives an exclusive 288 acres of area for export oriented business. GE has its India Technology Center located at this park and employs hundreds of multi disciplinary technology development activities.

The other promotional activities that brought up India to this position include the IT Corridor project. Conceptualized by Singapore ‘s Jurong Town Corporation Private Ltd, the IT corridor Project was initiated by the Department of IT and the Bangalore Development Authority in order to develop state of the art facilities for the development of knowledge based industries.

Thought’s of some World’s IT leaders about India

“Economic growth will force better governance, and better governance will feed more economic growth”

SV, NYC, USA

The people and communities at large feel that they don’t have the ability to make a difference

Juzar Singh Sangha, Bedford

India has to take more care of the village population who are still struggling to live properly

John Karondukadavil, India, Living in Poland, Jaslo

India can become a superpower if she concentrates on the technology market niche

Devyani Prabhat, Jersey City, USA

India must counter its skills and wage crisis

Pallavi, Sydney, Australia

Hopefully India will lead the world towards a more humane and tolerant future

Nilesh, Antwerp, Belgium

India needs to take strong and clear cut decisions to emerge as a global player

Nivedita Nadkarni, Madison, USA

India is a country gaining economic ground in the world

Justin, Bristol, UK

Indians now have to develop a sense of national pride

Leila, USA

India will never be a superpower, much less a global power

Jonathan, Boston, USA

India has had a sharp increase in the estimated number of HIV infections

Sezai, Eskisehir, Turkey

India’s economic success is built on the sacrifices of previous generations

Shekhar Scindia, Edison, NJ, USA

While India’s economic growth is encouraging, its sustainability is doubtful

Sigismond Wilson, Sierra Leonean in Michigan, USA

Conclusion

India is a perfect solution for all those companies, which seek for cheap, yet technically skilled labor who have innovative minds and state of art to work over a project. The ample of facilities provide in a perfect working conditions. For rest, cyber laws are there to monitor and safeguard everyone’s interest related to IT sector.

All these reasons contribute for India to be as the most adored destination to many companies. . So we can conclude:

•India poised for an explosive growth in ICT

•India emerging as a global R&D Hub

•From brain drain to brain gain

•Millions of jobs will be created in ICT & other emerging technology areas

•Quality issues will have to be addressed

•Private Sector world class institutions will emerge with global collaborations

•India will reclaim its ancient heritage of the world’s most advanced knowledge-based civilization called “Bharat”.

India will become Warehouse of IT in the world

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References

1. Goodman, Seymour E.; Burkhart, Grey E.; Foster, William A.; Mittal, Arun; Press, Laurence I.; and Tan, Zixiang (Alex), The Global Diffusion of the Internet Project, Asian Giants On-Line, Chapter 3 (India) and Chapter 4 (China), The Global Information Technology Assessment Group, Fairfax, VA, November 1998.

2. Press, L., Developing Networks in Less Industrialized Nations, IEEE Computer, vol. 28, no. 6, June 1995, PP 66-71.

3. [http://www.stpn.soft.net]

4. An Indian Perspective on IT & Engineering Programs ,Vijay Bhatkar, International Institute of Information Technology, Pune, India

5. Nasscom

6. Anuranjan Misra ” Software outsourcing from India” National Seminar on Strategies in Business Process Outsourcing”, IIMS, Bareilly, INDIA, Dec. 08-09 2004.

7. Anuranjan Misra” India – An Emerging IT Super Power” International Seminar on India 25 Years and Hence, IIMS, Bareilly, INDIA, Fev. 08,2006.



Source by Anuranjan Misra

Why Biometric Technology Is Still Not the Absolute Replacement for Passwords

A good security token is the one that distinctively corresponds to you and which nobody could know, guess or copy. This is the reason why security experts suggest us to use long and random passwords for our safety. However, it is not as easy as it sounds because it gets hard to memorize strong and unique passwords.

Biometric technology as we know right now is the hot favorite technique of securing any place. It had to happen counting it is such a trouble free way of security than that of passwords we have to remember. In biometrics, our finger or thumb impressions not only make our job easier but also are unique by nature.

Also, biometric technology removed the trouble of hacking considering it is not a cakewalk for someone to hack your fingerprints than cracking the pass code. Following the best security practices, setting strong passwords for separate devices and then memorizing the same every time is not an easy thing as compared to biometrics.

So, if a biometric system looks so better in every department, why is there a need for amelioration? Why still the technology is not the astute replacement for the pesky passwords?

First and foremost, it is a certain fact that biometrics will play an important part in future validation. But we need to understand that the system is not a cure for everything at the present moment. There are still many issues that prevail which need to be taken care of in order to make the technology thoroughly invulnerable.

A lot of researchers in the world have stated that it is not exactly true that biometrics can not be rehashed as they tried on fooling fingerprint readers and successfully got past the digital scanners via some special pair of glasses. More to it, the biometrics that were initially instigated keep all the data stored on server rather than restricting it to the client so breaking the security system is not impossible in this case scenario.

Last year it was reported that in a United States Office of Human Resource Management, touch ID's of millions of government employees were stolen which first raised the suspicion on the tech. Immediately ascertaining the threat, the mobile companies quickly changed the fingerprint system in the devices by adding a password security succeeding the touch ID.

This data break made it clear that biometrics is not impossible. In fact they have simply shunned the passwords. Counting it can get very problematic if someone can not log in with his or her touch ID, all the software companies ranging from Microsoft's Windows 10 and Google's Android have provided password tool as well to ensure this does not happen.

So, relying on biometric authentication is not recommended at the current time as having a backup in the form of passwords is very important. This process is called multi factor authentication (MFA) where we can put biometric as one of the two-way security procedure, while passwords the other.

Biometrics are indeed a fantastic method of verification but the tech is not yet a completely error proof. So, it should not be taken as an outright replacement for passwords but instead must be implemented along with it for enhanced protection.



Source by Fahad A. Khan

Indian Startup Scenario – India Towards Its True Potential

India ranks among the top five countries in the world in terms of the number of startups founded. India has made tremendous growth towards the creation of innovative startups and has emerged as the 3rd fastest growing hub for technology startups in the world.

Introduction of initiatives like GST and Make In India have given a momentum to the startup economy. Indian Start-ups are moving on the upper line and are expected to increase in size and number in the coming year. It is measured that India houses around 4,200 start-ups, creating more than 85,000 employment opportunities. With over $5 billion worth of investment in 2015 and three to four startups emerging every day, it is projected that the number of startups in India will increase to more than 11,500 by 2020, with job creation from these entrepreneurs reaching 250-300k. The number of Investors has also risen multi-fold in the past few years.

Recent Developments

Indian startups have undergone many developments in the second quarter of 2017. From being selected in the Google’s accelerator program, to raising funds from the Chinese investors, the startup ecosystem has been quite encouraging. Google selected six Indian startups for the accelerator program in July 2017. Startups using latest technologies such as machine learning and artificial intelligence have been chosen for the same.

Limitations

Despite such promising statistics, only 9% of the Start-Ups have female founders/co-founders. Delhi NCR, Bangalore, and Mumbai, along with Hyderabad, Pune and Chennai account for more than 90% of the Start-Ups in India. The focus is largely limited to information technology-enabled products and services including e-commerce, aggregators, analytics, health-tech and online payments. Amongst all this, the product start-up sector has been largely ignored. A big factor behind India’s growth is software enabled firms such as Flipkart and Ola. Rarely do hardware product companies bring about such success. The reason for this can be attributed to the lack of funds. India’s ecosystem clearly does not have any scarcity in terms of capital. However, only a very small amount of this capital reaches these startups. Additionally, startups in India spend five times the amount of effort to raise funds as compared to US startups.

This is where the Government intervention is required. Through the provision of alternate sources of funding and through a partnership between the Industry and Academia, the government can facilitate and accelerate the growth rate. Alternate debt financing instruments will help Start-Ups and other small enterprises to overcome the problem of lack of adequate collateral, limited cash-flow and the high risk involved. While direct support of start-ups and the right kinds of skills to start & run a business are important, the ease of doing business in the country also matters a great deal. This includes ease of starting a business, obtaining relevant permits, accessing credit, paying taxes, etc. The Labour laws in India are out-dated as well. Thus, appropriate government policies are required to make the Indian Start-Up Ecosystem reach its true potential.

However, Government and international organizations are investing in innovative ideas. Monetary and infrastructure support is accelerated. Start-ups are also making good use of the facilities available and are showing a sign of good times. This can certainly not be dismissed as a passing trend and it’s surely going to change the way the markets are working today in India. Government initiatives are also expected to play a vital role in the startup ecosystem’s bright future. For instance, the commerce and industry department of the Indian Government is planning to organize a south Asia regions’ meet of startups for exchanging new ideas and increasing interaction among them, thereby showing confidence in startups.

Thus, the scenario in the last quarter suggests that the investors’ interest towards funding the India startups remains strong. Next quarter is likely to be more attractive owing to the economic reforms and their implementation. Startups are now focusing on cutting losses, increase their overall valuation and attain operational excellence. These qualities along with the positive sentiments of the investors and support from the government can make the startup ecosystem of India reach new heights in the near future.



Source by Yash Bharadwaj

Global Offshoring Destination – India

India, no doubt, is one of the hottest destinations for IT business. With techno savvy work force, investment friendly government policies and efficient infrastructure facilities, India is all set to conquer a major share of the outsourcing revenue from global IT enterprises. According to Nasscom, the annual revenues from IT and BPO sectors are estimated to reach over US $ 76 billion in the financial year 2010-2011. This is far beyond our competitors, China with $ 35 billion and Philippines with $ 8.85 million. The report also says that Indian outsourcing industry is expected to touch a revenue return of US $ 225 billion by 2020. This, indeed, is a positive message that reflects a sustaining growth of IT industry in India.

Indian IT industry contributions immensely to the national economy. IT industry is one of the largest job creators in India. For the last 20 years, the growth of Indian IT industry is quite astonishing, as we can see clearly that the Indian market has entrenched strongly in the global IT market. No other Indian industry was more successful as to stand against its global competitors. Let us have a look on the rise of Indian IT industry and the factors that led to its success.

History of Information Technology revolution in India is associated with the outsourcing days. TATA group laid the foundation of Indian IT revolution. In 1970, TCS aligned with Burroughs Corporation (the Mainframe manufacturers), to carry out outsourced application services in Mumbai. This was the very beginning of software revolution in India. Indian IT engineers in large numbers were moved to various onsite projects (body shopping) abroad. The birth and growth of India's IT industry also added to the 1984 government policy, which provided the provision for software exports through satellite links. Although Indira Gandhi's Cabinet approved this, the Rajiv Gandhi Government announced the policy on November 19, 1984. It was in this era that various other policy initiatives including liberalization of policies for computer and electronics sector, Software Technology Parks (STP's), computerization of railways, rural digital telephone exchange etc took place. NASSCOM, a regulatory body on Indian IT services was set up in 1988 at Mumbai to assist trade and business in IT and ITES and to motivational advancement of research in software technology. Offshore outsourcing of IT services started to prevail during this period. NASSCOM's initiatives strengthened India's position as a globally recognizable brand in IT outsourcing industry. Apart from IT, other IT enabled services like hardware, peripherals, networking, training, domestic and export market for IT services, software's, and ITES-BPO started flourishing in India.

During this time, counterparts of US, UK IT firms mushroomed in key Indian locations like Mumbai, Bangalore, etc utilizing the emerging opportunities. Indian IT firms slowly moved up the value chain to provide comprehensive software development for overseas customers. Large English speaking low-cost work and comparatively lower real estate prices were the key attractions for global organizations to outsource their software development services to Bangalore, later developed to be the IT hub of India. IT-BPO sector emerged as one of the most significant growth catalysts for the Indian economy. Fresh boom is IT Infrastructure Management and Indians have taken the lead yet again as the most preferred choice among other economies across the board.



Source by Rakesh S Addipalli

The Different Ways Of Minting Indian Coins

In India, different rulers minted various varieties of coins. These coins were mined in different ways. Earlier, beads and stones were used as currency and this system was known as the Barter System.

However, as it was difficult to differentiate between these items, coins were introduced. Based on minting technologies, ancient Indian Coins can be broadly divided into four groups:

– Punch Marked Coins: These are the earliest recorded coins in India. They were used in the 6th Century BC. The symbols on them were abstract or nature related elements. As both the sides of the coins were contracted simultaneously, they were called the punch marked coins.

Most of the punch-marked coins had different number of punches impressed upon them. These coins were formed into different shapes, such as the bar-shaped, oblong, or cup-shaped. All these varieties of coins were stuck with dies.

– Casting Techniques: In this mining technology, coins were mined using molds. This technique was faster in comparison to the way the Punch Marked were produced and many coins could be produced at one time from a single mold. The main drawback of this technique was that the impression of the mold was not always transferred to the coins properly. So, the rulers at that time eventually developed a brand new technique.

– Repousee Technique: These coins were thin and lightweight. They bear devices only on one side and the other side had a negative impression. This technique was a time-consuming one, so there were fewer numbers of coins minted using this technique.

– Die-Struck Technique: Die-Struck technique was developed because of the fact that the Repousse and Casting techniques had many disadvantages. There were many Ancient Indian Coins minted with this technique during the rule of Gupta and Indo-Greeks. In this technique, both sides of the coins received impressions.

Here, there were many different varieties of coins minted by using these different techniques. Some of these coins are still present in the collections of the world and they can even be found in some museums. A perfectly designed coin is one which looks attractive, beautiful and is produced through keeping the technical aspects in consideration.

Transferring the image from a die to the coin requires a great deal of force. If the force is unbalanced, then the coins would gradually disintegrate. These disrupted dies can be seen on the surface of the coins in the form of lumps or lines.

Here, it is very important that the coins be mined in the correct manner.



Source by Yogini Bhambhani

JEE Main – The Golden Gate For a Bright Career

Being an engineer is a fascination for many in our country. The first hurdle to cross to achieve that is writing the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE). JEE is an all India common entrance examination which is the gateway to many engineering colleges all across India including the top ranked, Indian Institute of Technology (IITs). Replacing two different exams All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE) and Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Examination (IIT-JEE) in 2012, JEE is also held in two parts, JEE Main and JEE Advanced. JEE Mains is held for entrance to IITs (Indian Institutes of Information Technology), NITs (National Institutes of Technology), CFTIs (Central Funded Technical Institute) and Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST) Shibpur for their dual degree certificate. JEE-Advanced is for admission in Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), and Indian School of Mines Dhanbad which will soon be an IIT itself. Some other colleges like Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology (RGIPT) and Indian Institute of Science also take admissions on the basis of the score students get in JEE Main.

Only the top 1,50,000 students who appear for JEE Main are allowed to sit for JEE Advanced because IITs only accept top students. But not being eligible for JEE Advanced is not the end of the road because by getting good scores in JEE Main you can still get into top colleges like IIITs, NITs among other highly ranked institutes. Even the students who become eligible for sitting JEE Advanced but fail to clear it are eligible for admission in these colleges. The exam is held in two forms, Paper-1 for engineering and the other, Paper-2, for architecture/ planning courses. Paper-1 has a computer based online exam as well as a pen and paper exam with objective type multiple choice questions. Every question is worth 4 marks and every wrong question makes you lose one mark as negative marking. It is divided into Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics with each subject carrying equal number of marks. Paper-2 is divided into Mathematic, Drawing and Aptitude.

JEE Main is not an easy exam because it tests the versatility of your knowledge and skill and thus you need months of preparation and learn the cracks for a successful attempt at the exam. Biggest virtue while preparation is managing your time. Understand which subjects you are good at and make them your strong points while giving enough time to the weaker subjects as well. Time management is also important when you are writing the exam because there is a limited time and if you spend too much time on a tough question you might miss out on the easier ones. Giving a lot of mock tests is the best way to prepare as it tells you about strengths and weaknesses. JEE Main is the golden gate for a bright future career, prepare well.



Source by Dinesh Rohilla

Infrastructure Companies in India

Infrastructure Management refers to the management of many operation functions of an organization such as processes, policies, tools and equipments, data, human resources and external contacts. It can be divided into categories like network management, systems management, storage management etc. In the Information Technology sector IT outsourcing services like IT server support, network support, desktop support etc play a vital role in IT Infrastructure Management.

Almost all the businesses in the technology sector in India are adopting the management of their IT infrastructure and through this they are drastically reducing their operational costs. The IM of an organization should formulates the reliability, availability and performance of its IT infrastructure. IT covers IT management, business process management, customer relationship management hosted services and managed services. It provides an important place to the service quality and delivery of a company to its clients.

The information technology infrastructure of Indian emanating in the onward motion since the 80’s. Various technology institutes are providing comprehensive technical courses and creating IT professionals who are giving their services to Indian companies as well as abroad. The infotech sector in India has spread its wings in the major metro cities like Chennai, Bangalore, New Delhi, Noida, Mumbai, Kolkata and many others. Indian IM Industry is gradually booming during the last two decades and as a result from this jobs in the technical field are going beyond one million. And the software industry output is going to reach over $15 billion.

The complexity of infrastructures is also increasing with everything. Many websites and blogs of different services providers help in gaining knowledge as well as sharing ideas. Infrastructure management has increased the use of digital processes for in every industry. Infrastructure companies in India are providing solutions to the people. The revenues from IM are also increasing at a very fast rate in which the IT sector is major. With this we can say that IM is increasing with the growth of the organization.



Source by Vikram Khanna

The Different Ways Of Minting Indian Coins

In India, different rulers minted various varieties of coins. These coins were mined in different ways. Earlier, beads and stones were used as currency and this system was known as the Barter System.

However, as it was difficult to differentiate between these items, coins were introduced. Based on minting technologies, ancient Indian Coins can be broadly divided into four groups:

– Punch Marked Coins: These are the earliest recorded coins in India. They were used in the 6th Century BC. The symbols on them were abstract or nature related elements. As both the sides of the coins were contracted simultaneously, they were called the punch marked coins.

Most of the punch-marked coins had different number of punches impressed upon them. These coins were formed into different shapes, such as the bar-shaped, oblong, or cup-shaped. All these varieties of coins were stuck with dies.

– Casting Techniques: In this mining technology, coins were mined using molds. This technique was faster in comparison to the way the Punch Marked were produced and many coins could be produced at one time from a single mold. The main drawback of this technique was that the impression of the mold was not always transferred to the coins properly. So, the rulers at that time eventually developed a brand new technique.

– Repousee Technique: These coins were thin and lightweight. They bear devices only on one side and the other side had a negative impression. This technique was a time-consuming one, so there were fewer numbers of coins minted using this technique.

– Die-Struck Technique: Die-Struck technique was developed because of the fact that the Repousse and Casting techniques had many disadvantages. There were many Ancient Indian Coins minted with this technique during the rule of Gupta and Indo-Greeks. In this technique, both sides of the coins received impressions.

Here, there were many different varieties of coins minted by using these different techniques. Some of these coins are still present in the collections of the world and they can even be found in some museums. A perfectly designed coin is one which looks attractive, beautiful and is produced through keeping the technical aspects in consideration.

Transferring the image from a die to the coin requires a great deal of force. If the force is unbalanced, then the coins would gradually disintegrate. These disrupted dies can be seen on the surface of the coins in the form of lumps or lines.

Here, it is very important that the coins be mined in the correct manner.



Source by Yogini Bhambhani

Top 10 Training Academies in India

Training is what makes a person capable of doing something that cannot be done without proper training and knowledge. Training is very crucial for those activities that can be done only by knowledgeable people. Many people look for training in different fields and different streams in order to make themselves job-ready and achieve career growth on a faster basis. People choose the field of training based on factors like basic education, interest and scope of a field. There are various educational academies in India that provide in-depth training in different streams including fields like Information Technology, fashion and other fields. Training academies across India provide training for different courses of a particular field. The numbers of training academies are rising rapidly in our country. It is also quite difficult for people to choose the right training academy because of the huge numbers. There are few academies that advertise with false promises and create disappointment among the students. It is very much vital to choose the right academy based on factors like infrastructure, faculty, course content and so one. We have done an in-depth research in finding some of the best training academies in India. These are the top 10 training academies in India.

1. FITA

FITA has become more than just a training academy. It has become an established brand for job-assured training. It has transformed the lives of many students in a very short time. Students are passing out of Fita with immense knowledge and skills which give them the guarantee of placement. FITA provides training and certification in various Information Technology related courses like Java, Oracle, PHP, Hadoop etc and also provides training for digital marketing. It has already trained 10000+ students and given the best skills and knowledge they can get. Fita has expertise that meets global standards.

FITA Address: 37F, Velachery Main Road, Next To AdayarAnandaBhavan, Velachery, Chennai -600042. Phone: +91 98417 46595/044 42084566

2. NIVT

NIVT is a unit of Novel Research & Development India (P) Ltd. It was started in the year 2003 and has already trained many freshers and professionals. It is known to provide the best vocational training for various courses like Hadoop, Analytics, Web & Mobile technologies and Promotion Marketing. NIVT is the first institute in Eastern region of India to provide courses in business intelligence tool. It is also affiliated with the Government of India. It also offers scholarships for under privileged students. It is the best known for its Analytics courses. It is situated in Kolkata but is well known all over India.

NIVT Address: SDF Building, Module #118, Ground Floor, Salt Lake City, GP Block, Sector V, Kolkata, West Bengal 700091 Phone: +91 92306 13568

3. VECTOR

Vector is an institute that offers an all-in-one training courses on Embedded and VLSI systems. It is India’s first ISO 9001:2015 certified embedded & VLSI system training institute. The trainers at Vector have proven expertise in different fields and domains. They have designed an exclusive course content that meets global requirements. Vector has been meeting the demand for embedded system designers and has been supporting its students in getting placed in some of the best companies in the world. It is an institution with national recognition. It also offers short term courses to its students.

Vector Address: 33/49, 27th Cross Street, 12th Main, Jayanagar, 4th Block, Bangalore-560011 Phone: +91 87624 56789

4. ANALYTIXLABS

Analytixlabs, as its name suggests, it is an academy that concentrates more on Analytics and data management. It has branches in Bangalore and Gurgaon. Analytixlabs is known to have a huge network in the industry to guide and support students in placements. The students will also be guided on job applications and interview preparations. They have experts from companies like McKinsey, KPMG, Deloitte and Genpact to train students in the data analytics field with global knowledge. It also offers discounted rates for many courses that are in demand. It provides its services to both college students and working professionals to achieve career up gradation and acceleration.

Analytixlabs Address: Bldg 41, First floor, 14th Main Road, Near BDA Complex, Sector 7, HSR Layout, Bangalore – 560102 Phone: +91 95552 19007

5. ORANGETREE GLOBAL

Orangetree Global is located in various parts of north India like Pune, Kolkata and Mumbai. It offers courses that train students in business intelligence and business analytics. The Academy strives to impart knowledge to its students on various high-end technologies that will be of high demand in current as well as in future. It also offers resume building so that students learn to prepare professional resume suitable for data professionals.

Orangetree Address: 203B, Kemp Plaza, Malad MindSpace, Mumbai 400064 Phone: +91 98300 63222

6. IIHT

IIHT is located not only in India but also in Nepal. It offers various courses related Information Technology field. It has about 30+ job oriented courses that support the career of many students and professionals. It was found by some of the top veterans of the IT field, who have experience of more than 15 years. It has the separate range of courses for students and working professionals. Found in the year 1993, it has been successful in creating huge opportunities for students both in India and in foreign countries.

IIHT Address: No. 321, IInd Floor (Opposite to Stairs), Doshi Gardens, Arcot Road, Vadapalani, Chennai – 600026. Phone: 9677055562, 044-43069570

7. NETWORK BULLS

Network Bulls is a provider of exclusive networking based training and courses. It offers a wide variety of courses that support the job market demand for networking professionals. It has been in operation for more than 7 years. It is much of an exclusive academy with high-end infrastructure that supports and helps to learn and gain a lot of knowledge on networking. It is known to have the world’s biggest CISCO labs.

Network Bulls Address: SCO-9,10,11,12-2nd & 3rd Floor, Old Delhi Road, Sec-14, Gurgaon-122001 Phone: 1800 3070 7628

8. INVENTATEQ

Inventateq is an ISO 9001:2015 certified institute that imparts knowledge on various Information Technology streams. Interview questions and real case studies are provided to students so that the students gain as much as possible. It is a software training institute based in Bangalore. It has four branches in Bangalore.

Inventateq Address: 687, 1st Floor, 29th Main Road, Btm Layout 2nd Stage, Btm Lake Road, Bangalore-76 Phone: +91 080 42108236

9. VOGUE

Vogue is basically a fashion designing institute that provides post graduation also. It deals with not only fashion designing but also provides courses in fashion technology and management. It imparts knowledge that creates awareness about fashion merchandising. It is an institute based in Bangalore which is a hub of fashion and fashion merchandising.

Vogue Address: Plot # SW45-SW48, KIADB Apparel Park Phase II, Bangalore – 561203 Phone: +91 02261816372

10. DELPHI

Delphi is also another single technology based Academy in India. It is exclusively for SAP technology. It offers specialized SAP programs for individuals, professionals and students. It also offers SAP consulting services to some of the top companies which prove that the institute has been providing good on-field experience.

Delphi Address: 201A, Indira Building, Next to Titan Showroom, Bhandarkar Road, Pune 411004 Phone: +91 2040110500

Training is possible only through some of the best training academies. Training provides results that will give career acceleration to many people. Training imparts knowledge in various technologies that are of high demand and requirement around the world. We have listed out the Top 10 Training Academies in India that provide the best training like FITA Academy in the concerned fields and technologies like Java, Hadoop, Android, Selenium etc.,



Source by Amirtha Rao